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雅思写作要注意词汇变化

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2017-01-24 13:54立信编辑

从简单句到复合句式的转换,句式的多样性,是保证一篇作文取得高分的硬性要求,也是一个学生语言高水平的体现。 官方给出的7分评分标准: *uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision * uses less common lexical item

  从简单句到复合句式的转换,句式的多样性,是保证一篇作文取得高分的硬性要求,也是一个学生语言高水平的体现。
 
  官方给出的7分评分标准:
 
  *uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision
 
  * uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation
 
  * may produce occasional errors in word choice, spelling and /or word formation
 
  官方给出的6分评分标准:
 
  *uses an adequate range of vocabulary for the task
 
  *attempts to use less common vocabulary but with some inaccuracy
 
  *makes some errors in spelling and /or word formation, but they do not impede communication
 
  同六分词汇标准相比,7 分多了两个要求: flexibility (灵活性) and precision (准确性)。灵活性暗示我们在作文中要设置同意替换词[1] 。比如,第一段写了developing countries, 第二段就可以用these nations, 第三段可以用poor regions
 
  准确性 指在该题目下贴切的,核心的词汇[2] 。比如政府话题写出welffare福利一词,环保话题写出environmental-friendly 一词。
 
  7分和6分同时要求:要有less common lexical items, 不普通的,含义较深刻的词汇。比如undermine ( v. 逐渐破坏)代替damage; 用dilemma 代替problem。用的好不好,地道不地道,是否注意到了style( 文体) 和 collocation (搭配)决定了是6还是7.
 
  所以在写作中,词汇在准确使用的基础上,我们一定要注意设置同意替换词。在练习时我们就要不断积累同意替换词,在经常使用的单词上多想想,还可以替换什么样的词和表达方式。
 
  雅思写作中语法评分标准
 
  grammar range and accuracy
 
  7分评分标准:使用多种多样的复合句
 
  *use a variety of complex structures
 
  *produces frequent error-free sentences
 
  *has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors.
 
  (那么什么算是a variety of 呢?3种以上才称得上 a variety of,所以写作中要写出4种以上不同的从句。剑桥书后的考官范文,平均每篇12 句话,2句话是简单句,2句话是并列句,其余8句都是各种从句)
 
  6分评分标准:简单句和复合句的混合使用
 
  *uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms
 
  *makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication
 
  英文句式:简单句,并列句,限制性定语从句=分词做定语,非限制性定语从句,名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句), 状语从句=分词做状语,强调句,倒装句,插入语结构, 双重否定表肯定结构
 
  在写作中,我们要熟练,正确,恰当的应用多种句式与结构。当然除了句式我们还有时态,准确恰当运用各种时态在简单句和复合句中。
 
  我们从一些例句中,学习一下语法句式可以如何转换。
 
  With the rapid development of economy, the environment[3] has been deteriorated[4] . (主+谓的简单句)
 
  = As the economy develops rapidly, the environment has been deteriorated. (as引导的时间状语从句)
 
  Experts [5] suggestthe government to take down the old buildings in the urban center in order to improve the city image. (主+谓+ 宾+宾补的简单句)
 
  = Experts suggest that the government should tear down urban old buildings in order to enhance the image of this city. (that引导的宾语从句)
 
  The money which was spent on wild animals protection [6] should have been used to improve human lives . (定语从句)
 
  =The money spent on wild animal protection should have been used to improve human lives. (过去分词做定语)
 
  Spring came on, and the trees turned green. (并列句)
 
  = when spring came on, the trees turned green.(时间状语从句)
 
  =Spring coming on, the trees turned green. (独立主格结构)
 
  Topics of punishment of criminals always arouse people’s attention. (简单句)
 
  =Topics of the punishment of criminals never fail to arouse people’s attention.
 
  (双重否表肯定)
 
  = Never do topics of the punishment of criminals fail to arouse people’s attention. (倒装句)
 
  通过这些例句,学生应该可以看到从简单句到复合句式的转换,句式的多样性,是保证一篇作文取得高分的硬性要求,也是一个学生语言高水平的体现。

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